Yogyakartaalso Jogja, Jogjakarta) is a city and the capital of Yogyakarta Special Region in Java,Indonesia. It is renowned as a center of education (Kota Pelajar), classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry, and puppet shows. Yogyakarta was the Indonesian capital during the Indonesian National Revolution from 1945 to 1949. One of the districts in Yogyakarta, Kotagede, was the capital of the Mataram Sultanate between 1575 and 1640. The city is named after the Indian city of Ayodhya from the Ramayana epic. Yogya means "suitable, fit, proper", and karta, "prosperous, flourishing" (i.e., "a city that is fit to prosper").
The Dutch name of the city is Djokjakarta.
The area of the city of Yogyakarta is 32.5 square kilometres (12.5 square miles). While the city spreads in all directions from the kraton (the Sultan's palace), the core of the modern city is to the north, centring around Dutch colonial-era buildings and the commercial district. Jalan Malioboro, with rows of pavement vendors and nearby market and malls, is the primary shopping street for tourists in the city, while Jalan Solo, further north, is a shopping district more frequented by locals. At the southern end of Malioboro, on the east side is the large local market of Beringharjo, not far from Fort Vredeburg, a restored Dutch fort.
At Yogyakarta's centre is the Kraton, or Sultan's palace. Surrounding the kraton is a densely populated residential neighbourhood that occupies land that was formerly the Sultan's sole domain. Evidence of this former use remains in the form of old walls and the ruined Taman Sari, built in 1758 as a pleasure garden. No longer used by the sultan, the garden had been largely abandoned. For a time, it was used for housing by palace employees and descendants. Reconstruction efforts began in 2004, and an effort to renew the neighbourhood around the kraton has begun. The site is a developing tourist attraction.
Nearby to the city of Yogyakarta is Mount Merapi. The northern outskirts of the city run up to the southern slopes of the mountain in Sleman Regency (Indonesian language–Kabupaten). Gunung Merapi (literally "mountain of fire" in Indonesian/Javanese), is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. The volcano last erupted in November 2010.
In 2011 Yogyakarta city's gross domestic regional product was around IDR 12.960 trillions (around US$1.4 billion at the prevailing exchange rate) with a per capita income of around IDR 33.185 millions (around US$3,500).
Because of its proximity to world famous Borobudur and Prambanan temples, also because having unique Javanese court Kraton culture of Kraton Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta has become the second most important tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali. Most tourists come to Yogyakarta as an accommodation base on visiting Borobudur and Prambanan and also for its strong Javanese culture and tradition. This makes it prominent among other Javanese cities, along with Surakarta or Solo, a city lying about 64 kilometres (40 miles) to the east, Yogyakarta is the centre of Javanese culture.
Nine rock sites in the Yogyakarta area have been declared as geoheritage sites.
Yogyakarta contains several site museums in Hindu period temple such as Candi Prambanan, museums in the royal court, and museums in colonial buildings such as Yogyakarta Fortress Museum, the former Dutch Fort Vredeburg. Due to the importance of Yogyakarta during the war of independence from the Dutch, there are numerous memorials and museums such asYogya Kembali.
To the east of the town centre is a large air force museum; as Indonesia was for a period in the Soviet sphere of influence this museum contains a number of vintage Russian aircraft not widely available for inspection in the NATO sphere of influence. The collection includes examples of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 trainer, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 and Tupolev Tu-16, together with an assortment of American and British aircraft.
Museum Pusat Dirgantara Mandala (Muspurdila) or Mandala Air and Space Museum Center has 36 aircraft in the building and six aircraft in the yard of the museum.